Human Physiology Quiz: CHAPTER 14 (Digestive System)
Human Physiology Quiz 14Digestive System
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Regurgitation of stomach contents is normally prevented by the actions of the _________.
lower esophageal sphincter
Question 1 Explanation:
Regurgitation would occur because the pressure in the abdominal cavity is greater than the pressure in the thoracic cavity due to respiratory movements. The lower esophageal sphincter must therefore, remain closed until food is through it by peristalsis into the stomach.
The HCl in the stomach serves to perform all of the following except
activate the enzyme pepsinogen.
break peptide bonds in proteins.
denature proteins in food.
provide optimum pH for pepsin.
Which of the following is the part of the gastrointestinal system, but not the gastrointestinal tract?
Question 3 Explanation:
The GI tract consists of a singular tube consisting of the following organs: oral (buccal) cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The salivary glands are accessory organs of the digestive system.
The hydrochloric acid secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach will do all of the following except _____________.
kill microbial organisms
catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds
denature dietary proteins
stimulate the activation of pepsin
Question 4 Explanation:
Pepsin is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Which of the following is a brush border enzyme?
Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers are characteristic of the ___________ layer of the digestive tract.
Question 6 Explanation:
The lamina propria is a thin connective tissue that is found in the mucosa layer, the muscularis mucosa is a thin smooth muscle in the mucosa layer, and the submucosa is another layer of the GI tract containing glands, nerves, and blood vessels.
The process of ________ allows the liver to produce glucose form amino acids when there is adequate glucose in the diet.
Question 7 Explanation:
Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose, glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose subunits, and lipogensis is the formation of triglycerides from glucose.
In the small intestine, lipids are absorbed ______________.
into the lacteals
into the intestinal crypts
by the actions of enterokinase
by goblet cells
Question 8 Explanation:
Absorbed monosaccharides and amino acids enter the blood capillaries whereas absorbed fat enters the lacteals.
A high rate of red blood cell destruction, with elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood, causes _____________________.
Question 9 Explanation:
Since free bilirubin is derived from heme, jaundice associated with high blood levels of free bilirubin is usually caused by an excessively high rate of red blood cell destruction. This is the cause of jaundice in infants as they convert fetal hemoglobin into adult hemoglobin.
Bile contains all of the following components except ________________.
Question 10 Explanation:
Conjugated bilirubin within the bile can enter the intestine where it is converted by bacteria into another pigment called urobilinogen, which is excreted from the body via the kidneys.
Urine and feces get their characteristic colors from which of the following pigments?
Question 11 Explanation:
Free bilirubin cannot be filtered at the kidneys, conjugated bilirubin is secreted into bile, and bile salts are a component of bile.
The polymers of food are broken down into their constituent monomers by ____________ reactions in the digestive tract.
Most of the digestive system receives its parasympathetic innervation from the _________.
thoracic spinal nerves
lumbar spinal nerves
sacral spinal nerves
Question 13 Explanation:
The vagus nerve is the source of parasympathetic activity in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, small intestine, and upper portion of the large intestine.
The brain region that contains the hunger center is the ______.
More __________ is absorbed by the duodenum and the jejunum than by the ileum.
Question 15 Explanation:
The duodenum and jejunum absorb carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, Ca++, and Fe whereas bile salts, vitamin B12, water, and electrolytes are primarily absorbed in the ileum.
The absorptive surface area of the small intestine is increased by all of the following except _____________.
crypts of Lieberkhn
Question 16 Explanation:
The crypts of Lieberkhn are intestinal crypts where new intestinal epithelial cells are produced by mitosis.
The most important function of the stomach, and perhaps the only function that appears to be essential for life is the ______________.
digestion of carbohydrates
digestion of proteins
absorption of monosaccharides
secretion of intrinsic factor
Question 17 Explanation:
Intrinsic factor is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12, which is needed for maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
The main hormone that stimulates hunger is _____.
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
digestive enzyme production
synthesis of plasma proteins
Mucus is secreted throughout much of the GI tract by _____________.
Question 20 Explanation:
G cells secrete the hormone gastrin, enterochromaffin-like cells secrete histamine and seratonin, and parietal cells secrete HCl.
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